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Knee (Human Anatomy): Operate, Elements, Situations, Therapies

Anatomical illustration of knee

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The knee is likely one of the largest and most advanced joints within the physique. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). The smaller bone that runs alongside the tibia (fibula) and the kneecap (patella) are the opposite bones that make the knee joint.

Tendons join the knee bones to the leg muscle tissues that transfer the knee joint. Ligaments be a part of the knee bones and supply stability to the knee:

  • The anterior cruciate ligament prevents the femur from sliding backward on the tibia (or the tibia sliding ahead on the femur).
  • The posterior cruciate ligament prevents the femur from sliding ahead on the tibia (or the tibia from sliding backward on the femur).
  • The medial and lateral collateral ligaments stop the femur from sliding aspect to aspect.

Two C-shaped items of cartilage referred to as the medial and lateral menisci act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia.

Quite a few bursae, or fluid-filled sacs, assist the knee transfer easily.

Knee Situations

  • Chondromalacia patella (additionally referred to as patellofemoral syndrome): Irritation of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap (patella), inflicting knee ache. It is a frequent reason for knee ache in younger folks.
  • Knee osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the commonest type of arthritis, and sometimes impacts the knees. Attributable to getting old and put on and tear of cartilage, osteoarthritis signs could embrace knee ache, stiffness, and swelling.
  • Knee effusion: Fluid buildup contained in the knee, often from irritation. Any type of arthritis or harm could trigger a knee effusion.
  • Meniscal tear: Harm to a meniscus, the cartilage that cushions the knee, usually happens with twisting the knee. Giant tears could trigger the knee to lock.
  • ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) pressure or tear: The ACL is chargeable for a big a part of the knee’s stability. An ACL tear usually results in the knee “giving out,” and will require surgical restore.
  • PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) pressure or tear: PCL tears may cause ache, swelling, and knee instability. These accidents are much less frequent than ACL tears, and bodily remedy (reasonably than surgical procedure) is often the most suitable choice.
  • MCL (medial collateral ligament) pressure or tear: This harm could trigger ache and doable instability to the inside aspect of the knee.
  • Patellar subluxation: The kneecap slides abnormally or dislocates alongside the thigh bone throughout exercise. Knee ache across the kneecap outcomes.
  • Patellar tendonitis: Irritation of the tendon connecting the kneecap (patella) to the shin bone. This happens largely in athletes from repeated leaping.
  • Knee bursitis: Ache, swelling, and heat in any of the bursae of the knee. Bursitis usually happens from overuse or harm.
  • Baker’s cyst: Assortment of fluid behind the knee. Baker’s cysts often develop from a persistent effusion as in situations comparable to arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune situation that may trigger arthritis in any joint, together with the knees. If untreated, rheumatoid arthritis may cause everlasting joint injury.
  • Gout: A type of arthritis attributable to buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint. The knees could also be affected, inflicting episodes of extreme ache and swelling.
  • Pseudogout: A type of arthritis just like gout, attributable to calcium pyrophosphate crystals depositing within the knee or different joints.
  • Septic arthritis: An an infection attributable to micro organism, a virus, or fungus contained in the knee may cause irritation, ache, swelling, and problem transferring the knee. Though unusual, septic arthritis is a critical situation that often will get worse rapidly with out remedy.

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