Overview, Makes use of, Facet Results, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Opinions


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Chen, Y., Fu, T., Tao, T., Yang, J., Chang, Y., Wang, M., Kim, L., Qu, L., Cassady, J., Scalzo, R., and Wang, X. Macrophage activating results of recent alkamides from the roots of Echinacea species. J Nat.Prod. 2005;68(5):773-776. View summary.

Hou, C. C., Chen, C. H., Yang, N. S., Chen, Y. P., Lo, C. P., Wang, S. Y., Tien, Y. J., Tsai, P. W., and Shyur, L. F. Comparative metabolomics strategy coupled with cell- and gene-based assays for species classification and anti inflammatory bioactivity validation of Echinacea crops. J Nutr.Biochem. 2010;21(11):1045-1059. View summary.

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Morazzoni, P., Cristoni, A., Di Pierro, F., Avanzini, C., Ravarino, D., Stornello, S., Zucca, M., and Musso, T. In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating results of a brand new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea). Fitoterapia 2005;76(5):401-411. View summary.

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Parnham MJ. Profit-risk evaluation of the squeezed sap of the purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) for long-term oral immunostimulation. Phytomed 1996;3:95-102.

Penzak, S. R., Robertson, S. M., Hunt, J. D., Chairez, C., Malati, C. Y., Alfaro, R. M., Stevenson, J. M., and Kovacs, J. A. Echinacea purpurea considerably induces cytochrome P450 3A exercise however doesn’t alter lopinavir-ritonavir publicity in wholesome topics. Pharmacotherapy 2010;30(8):797-805. View summary.

Saluk-Juszczak, J., Pawlaczyk, I., Olas, B., Kolodziejczyk, J., Ponczek, M., Nowak, P., Tsirigotis-Woloszczak, M., Wachowicz, B., and Gancarz, R. The impact of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from chosen medicinal crops of Asteraceae household on the peroxynitrite-induced modifications in blood platelet proteins. Int.J Biol.Macromol. 12-1-2010;47(5):700-705. View summary.

Sharma, M., Schoop, R., Suter, A., and Hudson, J. B. The potential use of Echinacea in zits: management of Propionibacterium acnes development and irritation. Phytother.Res 2011;25(4):517-521. View summary.

Steinmuller, C., Roesler, J., Grottrup, E., Franke, G., Wagner, H., and Lohmann-Matthes, M. L. Polysaccharides remoted from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea improve the resistance of immunosuppressed mice towards systemic infections with Candida albicans and Listeria monocytogenes. Int.J Immunopharmacol. 1993;15(5):605-614. View summary.

Thompson, Okay. D. Antiviral exercise of Viracea towards acyclovir prone and acyclovir resistant strains of herpes simplex virus. Antiviral Res 1998;39(1):55-61. View summary.

Toselli, F., Matthias, A., Bone, Okay. M., Gillam, E. M., and Lehmann, R. P. Metabolism of the main Echinacea alkylamide N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide by human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes. Phytother.Res 2010;24(8):1195-1201. View summary.

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Woelkart, Okay., Koidl, C., Grisold, A., Gangemi, J. D., Turner, R. B., Marth, E., and Bauer, R. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alkamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia in people. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45(6):683-689. View summary.

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Abdel-Naby Awad OG. Echinacea can assist with azithromycin in prevention of recurrent tonsillitis in youngsters. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020;41(4):102344. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.102344. View summary.

Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of echinacea and policosanol with warfarin in wholesome topics.
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Awang DVC, Kindack DG. Echinacea. Can Pharm J 1991; 124:512-6.

Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, Rabago D, et al. Placebo results and the frequent chilly: a randomized managed trial. Ann.Fam.Med 2011;9:312-22. View summary.

Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D. et al. Echinacea for treating the frequent chilly: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:769-77. View summary.

Barrett B, Vohmann M, Calabrese C. Echinacea for higher respiratory an infection. J Fam Pract 1999;48:628-35. View summary.

Barrett B. Medicinal properties of Echinacea: a important assessment. Phytomedicine 2003;10:66-86. View summary.

Barrett BP, Brown RL, Locken Okay, et al. Remedy of the frequent chilly with unrefined echinacea. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:939-46.. View summary.

Binns SE, Purgina B, Bergeron C. Mild-mediated antifungal exercise of Echinacea extracts. Plant Med 2000;66:241-4. View summary.

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Bossaer JB and Odle BL. Possible etoposide interplay with Echinacea. J.Food regimen.Suppl 2012;9:90-5. View summary.

Brinkeborn RM, Shah DV, Degenring FH. Echinaforce and different Echinacea recent plant preparations within the therapy of the frequent chilly. A randomized, placebo managed, double-blind scientific trial. Phytomedicine 1999;6:1-6.. View summary.

Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro analysis of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by chosen industrial natural extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82. View summary.

Caruso TJ, Gwaltney JM Jr. Remedy of the frequent chilly with echinacea: a structured assessment. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:807-10. View summary.

Cassano N, Ferrari A, Fai D, et al. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical containing Echinacea, methionine and antioxidant/immunostimulating compounds in sufferers with cutaneous viral warts. G.Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2011;146:191-95. View summary.

Chavez ML, Chavez PI. Echinacea. Hosp Pharm 1998;33:180-8.

Dall’Acqua S, Perissutti B, Grabnar I, Farra R, Comar M, Agostinis C, et al. Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory impact of lipophilic Echinacea extract formulated in softgel capsules. C, et al. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.09.021. View summary.

Di Pierro F, Rapacioli G, Ferrara T, Togni S. Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Altern Med Rev 2012;17:36-41. View summary.

Grbic J, Wexler I, Celenti R, et al. A section II trial of a transmucosal natural patch for the therapy of gingivitis. J Am Dent.Assoc. 2011;142:1168-75. View summary.

Grimm W, Muller HH. A randomized managed trial of the impact of fluid extract of Echinacea purpurea on the incidence and severity of colds and respiratory infections. Am J Med 1999;106:138-43. View summary.

Gunning Okay. Echinacea within the therapy and prevention of higher respiratory tract infections. West J Med 1999;171:198-200. View summary.

Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. In vivo evaluation of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and noticed palmetto. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;76:428-40. . View summary.

Haller J, Freund, TF, Pelczer, KG, et al. The anxiolytic potential and psychotropic negative effects of an echinacea preparation in laboratory animals and wholesome volunteers. Phytother.Res. 2013;27:54-61. View summary.

Haller J, Krecsak L, Zámbori J. Double-blind placebo managed trial of the anxiolytic results of a standardized Echinacea extract. Phytother Res, 2020;34(3):660-8. View summary.

Hansen TS, Nilsen OG. In vitro CYP3A4 metabolism: inhibition by Echinacea purpurea and selection of substrate for the analysis of natural inhibition. Primary Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103:445-9. View summary.

Hoban CL, Byard RW, Musgrave IF. Evaluation of spontaneous opposed drug reactions to echinacea, valerian, black cohosh and ginkgo in Australia from 2000 to 2015. J Integr Med. 2019;17(5):338-343. View summary.

Hoheisel O, Sandberg M, Bertram S, et al. Echinagard therapy shortens the course of the frequent chilly: a double blind, placebo-controlled scientific trial. Eur J Clin Res 1997;9:261-268.

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Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart Okay, Linde Okay. Echinacea for stopping and treating the frequent chilly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2014;(2):CD000530. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3. View summary.

Karsch-Völk M1, Barrett B2, Linde K1. Echinacea for stopping and treating the frequent chilly. JAMA. 2015;313(6):618-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.17145. View summary.

Kocaman O, Hulagu S, Senturk O. Echinacea-induced extreme acute hepatitis with options of cholestatic autoimmune hepatitis. Eur J Intern Med 2008;19:148. View summary.

Lawrenson JA, Partitions T, Day AS. Echinacea-induced acute liver failure in a toddler. J Paediatr Baby Well being 2014;50(10):841. View summary.

Lee AN, Werth VP. Activation of autoimmunity following use of immunostimulatory natural dietary supplements. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:723-7. View summary.

Linde Okay, Barrett B, Wolkart Okay, et al. Echinacea for stopping and treating the frequent chilly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(1):CD000530. View summary.

Lindenmuth GF, Lindenmuth EB. The efficacy of echinacea compound natural tea preparation on the severity and length of higher respiratory and flu signs: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled examine. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:327-34. View summary.

Logan JL, Ahmed J. Important hypokalemic renal tubular acidosis because of Sjogren’s syndrome: affiliation with the purported immune stimulant echinacea. Clin Rheumatol 2003;22:158-9. View summary.

Lopresti AL, Smith SJ. An investigation into the anxiety-relieving and mood-enhancing results of Echinacea angustifolia (EP107
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Luettig B, Steinmuller C, Gifford GE, et al. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan remoted from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. J Natl Most cancers Inst 1989;81:669-75. View summary.

Martin TD, Inexperienced MS, Whitehead MT, Scheett TP, Webster MJ, Hudson GM. Six weeks of oral Echinacea purpurea supplementation doesn’t improve the manufacturing of serum erythropoietin or erythropoietic standing in recreationally energetic males with above-average cardio health. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2019;44(7):791-795. View summary.

Melchart D, Walther E, Linde Okay, et al. Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of higher respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Arch Fam Med 1998;7:541-5. View summary.

Mengs U, Clare CB, Poiley JA. Toxicity of Echinacea purpurea. Acute, subacute and genotoxicity research. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:1076-81. View summary.

Mistrangelo M, Cornaglia S, Pizzio M, et al. Immunostimulation to scale back recurrence after surgical procedure for anal condyloma acuminata: a potential randomized managed trial. Colorectal Dis 2010;12:799-803. View summary.

Moltó J, Valle M, Miranda C, et al. Herb-drug interplay between Echinacea purpurea and darunavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected sufferers. Antimicrob Brokers Chemother 2011;55(1):326-30. View summary.

Moltó J, Valle M, Miranda C, et al. Herb-drug interplay between Echinacea purpurea and etravirine in HIV-infected sufferers. Antimicrob Brokers Chemother 2012;56(10):5328-31. View summary.

Muller-Jakic B, Breu W, Probstle A, et al. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase by alkamides from Echinacea and Achillea species. Planta Med 1994;60:37-40.. View summary.

Mullins RJ, Heddle R. Opposed reactions related to echinacea: the Australian expertise. Ann Allergy Bronchial asthma Immunol 2002;88:42-51. View summary.

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Mullins RJ. Allergic reactions to Echinacea. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;104:S340-341 (Summary 1003).

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Oláh A, Szabó-Papp J, Soeberdt M, et al. Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides exhibit potent anti-inflammatory results and alleviate scientific signs of atopic eczema. J Dermatol Sci. 2017 Oct;88(1):67-77. View summary.

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Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. Inhibition of human sperm motility by particular herbs utilized in different drugs. J Help Reprod Genet 1999;16:87-91. View summary.

Parnham MJ. Profit-risk evaluation of the squeezed sap of the purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) for long-term oral immunostimulation. Phytomedicine 1996;3:95-102.

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Samuels N, Saffer A, Wexler ID, et al. Localized discount of gingival irritation utilizing site-specific remedy with a topical gingival patch. J.Clin.Dent. 2012;23:64-7. View summary.

Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, et al. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial. Eur.J Med Res 9-1-2009;14:406-12. View summary.

Schoop R, Klein P, Suter A, Johnston SL. Echinacea within the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther 2006;28:174-83. View summary.

Schroder-Aasen T, Molden G, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal industrial product Sambucus Pressure and its major constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra. Phytother Res 2012;26(11):1606-13. View summary.

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Schwarz E, Metzler J, Diedrich JP, et al. Oral administration of freshly expressed juice of Echinacea purpurea herbs fail to stimulate the nonspecific immune response in wholesome younger males: outcomes of a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover examine. J Immunother 2002;25:413-20.. View summary.

Shah SA, Sander S, White CM, et al. Analysis of echinacea for the prevention and therapy of the frequent chilly: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007;7:473-80. View summary.

Quickly SL, Crawford RI. Recurrent erythema nodosum related to echinacea natural remedy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:298-9. View summary.

Sperber SJ, Shah LP, Gilbert RD, et al. Echinacea purpurea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1367-71. View summary.

Speroni E, Govoni P, Guizzardi S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing exercise of Echinacea pallida Nutt. root extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:265-72. View summary.

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Turner RB, Bauer R, Woelkart Okay, et al. An analysis of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. N Engl J Med 2005;353:341-8. View summary.

Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Brokers Chemother 2000;44:1708-9. View summary.

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Wahl RA, Aldous MB, Worden KA, et al. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative therapy in youngsters with recurrent otitis media: a randomized managed trial. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2008;8:56. View summary.

Whitehead MT, Martin TD, Scheett TP, et al. Operating financial system and maximal oxygen consumption after 4 weeks of oral Echinacea supplementation. J Power Cond Res 2012;26:1928-33. View summary.

Yale SH, Glurich I. Evaluation of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic exercise of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:433-9. View summary.

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